Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Ramayana History In Sundara Kanda

Lord Hanuman is well known for his extreme devotion to Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman is always depicted in the Indian folklaire as an icon of true devotion and a symbol of the power of true devotion and chastity.
Lord Hanuman's devotion to Lord Rama is symbolic of the devotion of the enlightened individual soul towards the supreme soul.
Many stories from the Indian literature tell the tales of Lord Hanuman protecting devotees of Lord Rama and helping those who seek his either spiritually or otherwise. Swami Tulasidas has written these lines in respect of Lord Hanuman's great character, in praise of his powers and also devotion.





Ramayana History In Sundara Kanda:



Seetha asks Hanuma to describe the various characteristics of Rama and Lakshmana. Hanuma describes n detail to Seetha the appearance and qualities of Rama and Lakshmana. Hanuma also gives an account of how a friendship developed between Rama and Lakshmana as well as Sugreeva the Lord of monkeys. Hanuma also narrates his own life-story from the time he was born till his role as a minister of Sugreeva. He ends the story with his sight of Seetha in Lanka.
http://www.valmikiramayan.net/babg.jpg
 
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taam tu raama kathaam shrutvaa vaidehii vaanara R^iShabhaat |
uvaaca vacanam saantvam idam madhurayaa giraa || 5-35-1
1. shrutvaa= hearing; taam= that; raama kathaam= narration about Rama; vaanara rSabhaat= from Hanuma the excellent of monkeys; vaidehii= Seetha; madhurayaa giraa= in a sweet voice; uvaacha= spoke; idam= these; vachanam= words; saantvam= which were addressed gently.
Hearing that narration about Rama from Hanuma the excellent of monkeys, Seetha in a sweet voice spoke the following gentle words:
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kva te raameNa samsargaH katham jaanaasi lakShmaNam |
vaanaraaNaam naraaNaam ca katham aasiit samaagamaH || 5-35-2
2. kva= where; samparkaH= was the contact; te= to you; raameNa= with Rama?; katham= how; jaanaasi= do you know; lakSmaNam= Lakshmana?; katham= how; samaagamaH= did the union; vaanaraaNaam naraaNaamcha= between monkeys and men; aasiit= occur?
"Where was your contact with Rama? How do you know Lakshmana? How did the union between monkeys and men arise?"
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yaani raamasya lingaani lakShmaNasya ca vaanara |
taani bhuuyaH samaacakShva na maam shokaH samaavishet || 5-35-3
3. vaanara= O Hanuma!; yaani= which (are) liN^gaani= the characteristics; raamasya= of Rama; lakSmaNasya= and of Lakshmana?; saamaachakSya= tell; taani= them; shokaH= sorrow; na samaavishet= will not take possession; maam= of me; bhuuyaH= again.
"O Hanuma! What are the characteristics of Rama and Lakshmana? Narrate them to me, so that sorrow will not take possession of me again."
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kiidR^isham tasya samsthaanam ruupam raamasya kiidR^isham |
katham uuruu katham baahuu lakShmaNasya ca shamsa me || 5-35-4
4. kii dR^isham= of what kind; samsthaanam= was the appearance; tasya raamasya= of that Rama; lakSmaNasya= and of Lakshmana? kiidR^isham= of what kind was; ruupam= the form?; katham= how (were); uuruu= the thighs?; katham= how were; baahuu= the arms? shamse= tell; me= me.
"Of what kind was the appearance of that Rama and of Lakshmana? Of what kind was their form? How were the thighs? How were the arms? Tell me."
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evam uktaH tu vaidehyaa hanuumaan maaruta aatmajaH |
tato raamam yathaa tattvam aakhyaatum upacakrame || 5-35-5
5. evam= thus; uktaH= spoken; vaidehyaa= by Seetha; hanumaan= Hanuma; maarutaatmajaH= the son of wind-god; tataH= then; upachakrame= started; aakhyaatum= to tell; raamam= about Rama; yathaatattvam= according to the actual state.
Hearing the words of Seetha, Hanuma, the son of wind-god, then started to describe Rama according to his actual state (as follows):
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jaanantii bata diShTyaa maam vaidehi paripR^icChasi |
bhartuH kamala patra akShi samkhyaanam lakShmaNasya ca || 5-35-6
6. vaidehi= O Seetha; kamalapatraakSi= having eyes resembling lotus leaves!; diSTya= by fortune; paripR^ichchhasi= you are asking; samsthaanam= about the appearance; bhartuH= of Rama your husband; lakSmaNasya= and of Lakshmana; jaanantii= eventhough you know about them; bata= Alas, what a pleasure!.
"O Seetha having eyes resembling lotus leaves! By my fortune, you are enquiring about the appearance of Rama your husband and Lakshmana, eventhough you know about them. Alas! what a pleasure!"
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yaani raamasya cihnaani lakShmaNasya ca yaani vai |
lakShitaani vishaala akShi vadataH shR^iNu taani me || 5-35-7
7. vishaalaakSi= O Seetha the large-eyed woman!; yaani chihnaani= of which characteristics; raamasya= of Rama; yaani= and of which characteristics; lakSmaNasya cha= of Lakshmana; lakSitaani= were seen; shR^iNu= hear; taani= them; me= from me.
"O the large eyed Seetha! I tell the characteristics of Rama and Lakshmana as I recognized them; hear them from me."
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raamaH kamala patra akShaH sarva bhuuta mano haraH |
ruupa daakShiNya sampannaH prasuuto janaka aatmaje || 5-35-8
8. jaanakaatmaje= O Seetha the daughter of Janaka!; raamaH= Rama; kamala patraakSaH= has his eyes resembling the petals of a lotus; sarva sattvamanoharaH= he has a handsomeness, attracting the hearts of all living beings; ruupa dakSiNya sampannaH= He is endowed with grace and dexterity; prasuutaH= from the time he was born.
"O Seetha the daughter of Janaka! Rama has his eyes resembling the petals of a lotus. He has a handsomeness, attracting the hearts of all living beings. He is endowed with grace and dexterity, by birth."
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tejasaa aaditya samkaashaH kShamayaa pR^ithivii samaH |
bR^ihaspati samo buddhyaa yashasaa vaasava upamaH || 5-35-9
9. aaditya sankaashaH= he is equal to the sun; tejasaa= in splendour; pR^ithiviisamaH= equal to the earth; kSamayaa= in endurance; bR^ihaspati samaH= equal to Brihaspati; buddhyaa= in intelligence; vaasavopamaH= and equal to Indra; yashasaa= in fame.
"He is equal to the sun in splendour, earth in endurance, Brihaspati in intelligence and Indra in fame."
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rakShitaa jiiva lokasya sva janasya ca rakShitaa |
rakShitaa svasya vR^ittasya dharmasya ca param tapaH || 5-35-10
10. paramtapaH= Rama, the tormentator of his adversaries; rakSitaa= is a protector; jiivalokasya= of the world of beings; abhirakSitaa= further protecting; svajanasya= his own people; rakSitaa= he is the protector; vR^ittasya= his own behaviour; dharmasyacha= and righteousness.
"Rama the tormentator of his adversaries, is a protector of the world of beings, further protecting his own people. He is the protector of his own behaviour and righteousness.
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raamo bhaamini lokasya caaturvarNyasya rakShitaa |
maryaadaanaam ca lokasya kartaa kaarayitaa ca saH || 5-35-11
11. bhaamini= O Seetha!; raamaH= Rama; rakSitaa= is the protector*; chaaturvarNasya= of the four castes; lokasya= of the world; saH= He; kartaa= is the doer; kaarayitaachaiva= and also the agent; maryaadaanaam= for the proprieties of conduct; lokaanaam= of people.
"O Seetha! Rama is the protector of the four castes of the world. He is the doer and also the agent for the people's propriety of conduct."
* Four principal castes described in Manu's code - Brahmanas (priestly class), Kshatriyas (members of military or reigning order); Vaisyas (Traders and agriculturists) and Sudras (class of servitude).
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arciShmaan arcito atyartham brahma carya vrate sthitaH |
saadhuunaam upakaaraj~naH pracaaraj~naH ca karmaNaam || 5-35-12
12. archiSmaan= (Rama) Rama is a resplendent man; architaH= He is respected; atyartham= exceedingly; sthitaH= He is established; brahmacharya vrate= in a vow of chastity; upakaarajNaH= He knows how to do good; saadhuunaam= to virtuous people; prachaaraJNashcha= He knows the application and advantage; karmaNaam= of actions.
"Rama is a resplendent man. He is respected exceedingly. He is established in a vow of chastity. He knows how to do good to virtuous people. He knows the application and advantage of his actions."
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raaja vidyaa viniitaH ca braahmaNaanaam upaasitaa |
shrutavaan shiila sampanno viniitaH ca param tapaH || 5-35-13
13. raaja vidyaa viniitashcha= He is well trained in statesmanship; upaasitaa= He honours; braahmaNaanaam= Brahmins, the priestly class; shrutavaan= He possesses sacred knowledge; shiilasamapannaH= He is endowed with a good conduct; viniitaH= He is a modest-man; paramtapaH= He torments his adversaries.
"He is well trained in statesmanship. He honours brahmins, the priestly class. He possesses sacred knowledge. He is endowed with good conduct. He is a modest man. He torments his adversaries."
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yajuH veda viniitaH ca vedavidbhiH supuujitaH |
dhanuH vede ca vede ca veda angeShu ca niShThitaH || 5-35-14
14. yadurveda viniitashcha= He got trained in Yajurveda, the sacrificial Veda; supuujitaH= he is highly honoured; veda vidbhiH= by those well-versed in Vedas; niSThitaH= He is skilled in; dhanurvedecha= Dhanurveda, the science of archery; vedeSu= other Vedas; vedaaNgecha= and the six limbs of Vedangas.
"He got trained in Yajurveda, the sacrificial Veda. He is highly honoured by those well-versed in Vedas. He is skilled in Dhanurveda, the science of archery, other Vedas and the six limbs* of Vedangas."
Six limbs of Vedangas : 1) Siksha, the science of proper articulaton and pronunciation 2) Chandas, the metre 3) Vyakarana, the grammar 4) Nirukta, the explanation of difficult Vedic words 5) Jyotisha, the astronomy or rather the Vedic Calendar. 6) Kalpa, the ceremonial represented by a large number of Sura works.
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vipula amso mahaabaahuH kambu griivaH shubha aananaH |
guuDha jatruH sutaamra akSho raamo devi janaiH shrutaH || 5-35-15
15. devi= O Princess!; raamaH= Rama; vipulaamsaH= is broad-shouldered; mahaabaahuH= long-armed; kambugriivaH= has a shell-like neck; shubhaananaH= has an auspicious countenance, guuDha jatruH= He has hidden collar-bone; suutaamraakSaH= He has beautiful red eyes; shrutaH= he is heard about; janaiH= by people.
"O princess! Rama is a broad shouldered and a long-armed man. He has a shell-like neck. He has a handsome countenance. He has a hidden collar-bone. He has beautiful red eyes. His fame is heard about by people."
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dundubhi svana nirghoShaH snigdha varNaH prataapavaan |
samaH sama vibhakta ango varNam shyaamam samaashritaH || 5-35-16
16. dundubhisvananirghoSaH= He has a voice like the sound of a kettle-drum; snigdhavarNah= He has a shining skin; prataapavaan= He is full of splendour; samaH= He is square-built; samavibhaktaaN^gaH= His limbs are symmetrically built; samaashritaH= He is endowed with; shyaamam varNam= a dark-brown complexion.
"He has a voice like the sound of a kettle-drum. He has a shining skin. He is full of splendour. He is square-built. His limbs are built symmetrically. He is endowed with a dark-brown complexion."
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tristhiraH tripralambaH ca trisamaH triShu ca unnataH |
trivaliivaan tryavanataH catuH vyangaH trishiirShavaan || 5-35-17
17. tristhiraH= He is ever firm in three limbs (viz. the breast, wrist and fist); tripralambashcha= long in three (viz. his locks, testicles and knees); unnataH= elevated; triSu= in three (viz. the breast, rim of the navel and the lower abdomen); tritaamraH= coppery in three (viz. the rims of his eyes, nails, palms and soles); smigdhaH triSucha= soft in three (viz. the lines on his soles, hair and the end of membrum virile); nityashaH= and always; triSu gambhiiraH= deep in three (viz. the voice, gait and the navel).
"He is ever firm in three limbs (viz. the breast, waist and fist), long in three (viz. the breast, waist and fist), long in three (viz. the eyebrows, arms and soles), uniform in three (viz. his locks, testical and knees, elevated in three (viz. his breast, rim of his navel and lower abdomen), coppery in three of the navel and the lower abdomen), coppery in three (viz. the rims of his eyes, nails, palms and soles), soft in three (viz. the lines on his soles, hair and the end of the membrane virile) and always deep in three (viz. the voice, gait and the navel)."
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trivaliivaamstryavanatashchaturvyaN^gastrishiirSavaan |
chatuSkalashchaturlekhashchatuSkiSkushchatuHsamaH || 5-35-18
18. trivaliivaan= He has three folds (in the skin of his neck and belly); tryavanataH= He is depressed at three places (viz. the middle of his soles, the lines on his soles and the nipples); chaturvyaN^gaH= undersized at four place (viz. the neck, membrum virile, the back and the shanks); trishiirSavaan= He is endowed with three spirals in the hair of his head, four lines at the root of his thumbs and the four lines on his forehead; chatuSkalaH= He has four marks on his thumb (denoting his proficiency in the four Vedas); chaturlekhaH= He has four lines on his forehead (indicating longevity); c
"He has three folds in the skin of his neck and belly. He is depressed at three places (viz. the middle of his soles, the lines on his soles and the nipples). He is undersized at four places (viz. the neck, membran virile, the back and the shanks). He is endowed with three spirals in the hair of his head. He has four lines at the root of his thumb (denoting his proficiency in the four Vedas). He has four lines on his forehead (indicating longevity). He is four cubits high (96 inches). He has four pairs of limbs (viz. the cheeks, arms, shanks and knees) equally matched."
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catuSh kalaH catuH lekhaH catuSh kiShkuH catuH samaH |
caturdasha sama dvandvaH catuH daShTaH catuH gatiH || 5-35-19
19. chaturdashamadvandvaH= He has fourteen other pairs of limbs (viz. the eye brows, nostrils, eyes, ears, the lips, nipples, elbows, wrists, knees, testicles, loins, hands, feet and thighs) equally matched; chaturdamSTraH= the four large teeth at both the ends of his upper and lower jaws are very sharp; chaturgatiH= He walks in four gaits (resembling the, walks of a lion, a tiger, an elephant and a bull); mahoSTha hanunaasashcha= He is endowed with excellent lips, chin and nose; paN^chasnigdhaH= He has five glossy limbs (viz. the hair, eyes, teeth, skin and soles); aSTa vamshavaan= He has eight long limbs (viz. the arms, fingers and toes, eyes and ears, thighs and shanks).
"He has fourteen other pairs of limbs (viz. the eye brows, nostrils, eyes, ears, lips, nipples, elbows, wrists, knees testicles, lions, hands, feet and thighs) equally matched. The four large teeth at both the ends of his upper and lower jaws are very sharp. He walks in four gaits (resembling the walks of a lion, a tiger, an elephant and a bull). He is endowed with excellent lips, chin and nose. He has five glossy limbs (viz. the hair, eyes, teeth, skin and soles). He has eight long limbs (viz. the arms, fingers and toes, eyes and ears, thighs and shanks).
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dasha padmo dasha bR^ihat tribhiH vyaapto dvi shuklavaan |
ShaD unnato nava tanuH tribhiH vyaapnoti raaghavaH || 5-35-20
20. raaghavaH= Rama; dashapadmaH= has ten lotus-like limbs (viz. the countenance, the mouth, the eyes, the tongue, lips, palate, breasts, nails, the hands and the feet); dashabR^ihat= He has ten ample limbs (viz. the chest, the head, the forehead, the neck, the arms the heart, the mouth, the feet, the back and the ears); vyaaptaH= He is spread through; tribhiH= by reason of three (viz. splendour, renown and glory); vyaaptaH= He is spread through; tribhiH= by reason of three (viz. splendour, renown and glor); dvishuklavaan= He is doubly pure (on father's and mother's side); SaDunnataH= He is elevated in six limbs (viz the flanks, the abdomen, the breast, the nose, the shoulders and the forehead); navatanuH= He is small, thin, fine or sharp in nine (viz. the hair, the moustaches and the beard, nails, the hair on the body, the skin, the finger joints, the membran virile, acumen adn perception) vyaaproti= He pursus religious merit, world riches and sensuous delight in three periods ( viz the forenoon, midday and afternoon).
"Rama has ten lotus-like limbs (viz. the countenance, the mouth, the eyes, the tongue, lips, palate, breasts, nails, the hands and the feet). He has ten ample limbs (viz. the chest, the head, the forehead, the neck, the arms, the heart, the mouth the feet, the back and the ears). He is spread through by reason of three (viz. splendour, renown and glory). He is doubly pure (on father's and mother's side). He is elevated in six limbs (viz. the flanks, the abdomen, the breast, the nose, the shoulders and the forehead). He is small, thin, fine or sharp in nine (viz. the hair, the moustaches and the beard, nails the hair on the body, the skin, the finger-joints, the membrum virile, acumen and perception). He pursues religious merit, worldly riches and the sensuous delight in three periods (viz. the forenoon, midday and afternoon).
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satya dharma paraH shriimaan samgraha anugrahe rataH |
desha kaala vibhaagaj~naH sarva loka priyam vadaH || 5-35-21
21. satyadharmaparaH= Rama is engrossed in truth and righteousness; shriimaan= He is a prosperous man; rataH= He is interested in; samgrahaanugrahe= reception and facilitation; desha kaala vibhaagaJNaH= He knows apportioning of place and time; sarvalokapriyamvadaH= He speaks affectionately with all.
"Rama is engrossed in truth and righteousness. He is a prosperous man. He is interested in reception and facilitation. He knows how to apportion place and time. He speaks affectionately with all."
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bhraataa ca tasya dvaimaatraH saumitriH aparaajitaH |
anuraagena ruupeNa guNaiH caiva tathaa vidhaH || 5-35-22
22. aparaajitah= the invincible; saumitriH= Lakshmana; tasya= that Rama's vaimaatraH= step-mother's son; bhraataa= and the brother; tathaavidhaH= is like that Rama; anuraageNa= in affection; ruupeNa= in appearance guNaishchaiva= and in qualities.
"The invincible Lakshmana, the son of Rama's step-mother and Rama's brother, is resembling Rama in appearance, affection and in qualities."
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taavubhau narashaarDuulau tvaddarshanasamutsukau |
vichinvanau mahiim kR^itsnaamasmaabhirabhisamgaatau || 5-35-23
23. tau= those; ubhau= two; narashaarduulau= tigers among men; tvaddarshana samutsukau= very anxiously desirous of seeing you; vichinvantau= and searching; kR^itsnaam= all over; mahiim= the earth; abhisamgatau= came in contact; asmaabhiH= with us.
"Rama and Lakshmana, the two tigers among men, very anxiously desirous of seeing you and searching all over the earth, came in contact with us."
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tvaam eva maargamaaNo tau vicarantau vasum dharaam |
dadarshatuH mR^iga patim puurvajena avaropitam || 5-35-24
R^ishyamuukasya pR^iShThe tu bahu paadapa samkule |
bhraatuH bhaarya aartam aasiinam sugriivam priya darshanam || 5-35-25
24, 25. tau= those two, Rama and Lakshmana; vicharantau= wandering maargamaaNau= in search of; tvaameva= you only; vasundharaam= on the earth; dadarshatuH= saw; sugriivam= Sugreeva; mR^igapatim= the Lord of monkeys; aasiinam= sitting; R^ishyamuukasya pR^iSThe= on the top of R^ishyamuka mountain; bahupaadapasamkule= filled with several trees; avaropitam= having been dethroned; puurvajena= by his elder brother; bhayaartam= oppressed with fear; bhraatuH= from his brother; priyadarshanam= and who was pleasant to the sight.
"Those two brothers Rama and Lakshmana, wandering only in search of you all over the earth, saw Sugreeva the Lord of monkeys, sitting on the top of Rishyamuka mountain, filled with several trees, having been dethroned by his elder brother, oppressed with fear, but who was pleasant to the sight."

Ramayana History In Sundara Kanda

Lord Hanuman is well known for his extreme devotion to Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman is always depicted in the Indian folklaire as an icon of true devotion and a symbol of the power of true devotion and chastity.
Lord Hanuman's devotion to Lord Rama is symbolic of the devotion of the enlightened individual soul towards the supreme soul.
Many stories from the Indian literature tell the tales of Lord Hanuman protecting devotees of Lord Rama and helping those who seek his either spiritually or otherwise. Swami Tulasidas has written these lines in respect of Lord Hanuman's great character, in praise of his powers and also devotion.





Ramayana History In Sundara Kanda:


The sundara kanda forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramayana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka. On the way he faces many challenges like facing a gandharva kanya who comes in the form of demon to test his abilities. Hhe faces a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Lord Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Rama refuses because there is a very less time remaining to complete the search for Sita. After entering into Lanka he finds a demon lankini who protects the entire Lanka. Hanuman fights with her and kills her in order to get into Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in ashoka grove, where she is wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. He reassures her, giving Rama's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Rama, however she refuses and says that it is not the dharma. She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction.

Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors. He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and, leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island. The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news.